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Antisemitic/Antisemitism: The hatred and unfair treatment of Jewish people.

Barracks: A group of communal buildings used to house groups of people like soldiers or prisoners. In Nazi concentration camps, they were overcrowded, and the conditions were terrible.

Censorship: When someone or a group in power decides to hide or block certain information or things from other people.

Concentration and death camps: Concentration camps are prison-like centers built to hold, punish, and force labor onto people who are considered enemies. These camps varied in purpose and in the types of prisoners held there. Death camps were created to kill the people who arrived there.

Dachau: Dachau was the first concentration camp established by Nazi Germany in March of 1933. The camp was located outside of Munich, a major city in southern Germany. Dachau was also a training center for concentration camp guards. Over 200,000 people were imprisoned there between 1933 and 1945.

Deportation: Forced removal of a person or group of people from their homes. The Nazis deported millions of Jews to concentration and death camps across Europe.

Dictator: A ruler who takes total power over a country or government, usually inciting violence against anyone who disagrees with them. Adolf Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany. He outlawed political groups and shut down institutions, organizations, media, and community services that did not align with Nazi ideas.

Discriminate/Discrimination: Unfair treatment of a person because of a certain quality or identity they possess, such as their race, religion, gender, or sexuality.

Ghetto: During the Holocaust, the Nazis forced Jewish people into ghettos, which were often walled off sections of cities with awful living conditions, including overcrowding, disease, and lack of food. Though today this term refers to a poor or segregated area of any city, the word ghetto was first coined in 1516 to refer to the Jewish quarter in Venice, Italy.

Holocaust: The murder of approximately six million Jews, from 1933 to 1945, by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. Nazi Germany also persecuted and murdered Roma and Sinti, Jehovah’s Witnesses, LGBTQ people, disabled people, communists, and many others.

Humanitarian: A person who takes action and approaches problems specifically to improve people’s lives and reduce suffering.

Jehovah’s Witnesses: This is a denomination of Christianity that does not believe in military service or patriotism to a particular government. They were persecuted by Nazi Germany because of these beliefs.

Kosher: Food and kitchens that follow the Jewish laws of Kashrut, which separates food into “milk” and “meat.”

Kristallnacht/November Pogroms: “Kristallnacht” was the word used by the Nazis to describe the series of pogroms—violent attacks—that took place on November 9 and 10, 1938. Jewish synagogues, homes, and businesses were destroyed, and many Jewish men were arrested and killed. This event is also known as the November Pogroms.

Occupation: When an army or group of people take control of another country or area by force. Nazi Germany occupied many countries during World War II, including Denmark.

Refugee: A person who had to leave their home because it wasn’t safe there anymore, who is looking for a new and safer place to live

Resistance Fighters: People who join together to take action against injustice whether from their government or oppressors. Here, it refers to Danish people who worked together to fight for freedom against Nazi invaders to save the Jews of Denmark from deportation.

Roma and Sinti: These are the names of two traditionally nomadic groups of people who have lived in Europe for centuries, sometimes also known as Romany or Rom. They were cruelly persecuted by the Nazis alongside Jewish people.

Synagogue: A special place where Jewish people go to pray, learn about their faith, and come together as a community.

Talmud: A very old and important book that Jewish people use to learn about their religion and traditions.

Torah scroll: A Torah scroll is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the first foundational text of the Hebrew Bible, also called the five books of Moses. The scroll itself is written on a special material called parchment using special ink, and is considered holy. The Torah is read regularly throughout the year at many Jewish religious services.